Gods & Festivals
As has been listed elsewhere on my site, many gods are mentioned in the bible, and even some of the characters have associations with deities, either directly by their name(s) or attributes, or indirectly by legends and deeds associated with them. There is also a series of cross-linked deities for all the main cultures of the region, as listed. The descriptions are deliberately simplified to indicate how much they had in common.

Gods | Festivals


Aa [Babylonian]
The mother of all things.
Abaddon [Hebrew] / Apollyon [Greek "Downfall" / "Ruin" / "Destroyer"]
Initially the underworld or place of destruction, then a Greek god.
Abgal / Apkallu [Sumerian]
Seven spirits ruled by Enki who came from the primeval abyss.
Abu [Sumerian]
God of vegetation who sprang from the skull of Enki (a representation of crops growing from the earth).
Abraxas / Abraxis / Abrasax [Gnostic]
Each letter was said to represent a planet, and in numerology the sum of the letters totalled 365.
Adad [Babylonian / Sumerian] / Hadad [Canaanite "Wind" / "Heaven's Warden"] / Rimmon / Ramman [Babylonian "Thunder"]
A god of weather, rain, and (thunder-)storms; son of An and married to Shalas.
Names Of People : Names Of Places :
Adonis ["Master" / "Lord" ] / Atunis [Etruscan]
The name was based on Adon(ai) (cf Yahweh), though as a person he was born from a myrrh tree and was a beautiful young man who divided his time between Aphrodite during Summer and Persephone during Winter; he was of the same mythical origins as Tammuz in that he embodied the death / rebirth of vegetation, though his resurrection was probably a later addition and copied from Osiris.
Aesculapius [Greek] / Asklepios [Roman]
God of healing and son of Apollo, he was shown carrying a caduceus (which was adopted as the symbol for the medical profession) and may originally have been a snake-god.
Agathos Daimon [Greek]
A guardian spirit depicted as a winged serpent flying around someone and giving them good luck.
Agnostos Theos [Greek "Unknown God"]
This referred to a number of un-named but not nameless gods; the term was also applied to an anonymous god who was known as "Lord Of The World" & "The Good One".
Ahriman / Angru Mainyu [Persian "Evil Spirit"]
The embodiment of evil, darkness, and death; he was the adversary of Ahura Mazda and balanced every creative act of Ahura's with one of destruction.
Ahura Mazda / Aramazd / Ormuzd [Persian "Lord Of Wisdom"]
Lord of Light; the first 'One True God' as preached by Zarathustra / Zoroaster.
Aion / Chronos [Greek "Time"] (cf Zervan & Kronos)
God of time and the personification of an historical age.
Allah [Arabic "Al Ilah" = "The God"]
Originally the moon-god Hubal / Sin, later elevated as the sole creator of everything before whom all should submit (Islam); father of Allat & Aluzza & Manat.
Al-uzza ["The All-powerful"]
Pre-Islamic goddess of the planet Venus idolised as a block of white granite; one of the daughters of Allah.
Amaunet [Egyptian]
Primeval goddess and divine mother, known as "the mother who was the father" she was wife to Amun; later merged with Neith.
Amentet [Egyptian]
Goddess of the West and necropolis, who received the souls of the dead as they passed.
Amm ["He Who Waxes"]
Pre-Islamic god of the Moon, also of the weather.
Amphitrite [Greek]
Daughter of Nereus and married to Poseidon, she was an ancient goddess of the oceans.
Amun [Egyptian "The Hidden One"] / Ammon [Greek]
God of the air and wind, and of creation; married to Mut and later assimilated with Re as Amun-Re.
Anat(h) [Phoenician / Canannite "Providence"] (cf Astarte & Isis)
Goddess of nature and life, sister and sometimes wife of Baal who reformed his body from the pieces of Mot after she dismembered him in vengeance for killing Baal (cf Isis & Osiris & Set); later worshipped in Egypt as a goddess of war.
Pre-Islamic god of justice and mouthpiece for Amm.
Annuna / Anunnaki [Sumerian "Of Princely Birth"]
The former was a collective term for the local gods of an area; the Annunnaki ruled the lower regions (netherworld), in contrast to the heavenly Igigi.
Anu [Babylonian] / An [Sumerian "Heaven" / "Above"]
God of the sky; son of Anshar & Kisar, and with Ki or Antum the father of Ea & Ishtar; also father to Nininsina & Baba.
Anubis [Egyptian]
Originally god of the dead, though later their judge by weighing their heart, he supervised the process of embalming & mummification and was married to Bastet.
Anzu / Zu [Babylonian]
A storm-bird who stole the Tablets of Fate, but was vanquished by Ninurta / Ningirsu.
Aphrodite / Anadyomene [Greek] / Venus [Roman] / Kypris / Kythereia
Goddess of love and beauty, born from the waves and the blood of Uranus; lover of Adonis and wife of Hephaestus.
Apis / Hapi / Serapis [Egyptian]
A holy bull, symbol of fertility, who merged with Osiris after his death to become Serapis.
Apollo(n) [Greek] / Aplu [Etruscan]
Son of Zeus & Leto and sister to Artemis, he was a god of crops and cattle who became associated with the sun, though he was also a god of healing (as was his son, Aesculapius, with whom he shared the symbol of a snake) and protected people's homes; he was known as "Lord Of Light" as well as a saviour.
Apop(h)is [Egyptian]
A monster who lived in darkness and threatened the sun as it crossed the sky, he was slain and dismembered by Set.
Apsu [Babylonian / Akkadian] / Abzu [Sumerian]
Originally the primeval abyss / underworld sea itself from which were born Marduk and mankind (formed by Nammu), then a personification of it and with Tiamat father of the Lahama.
Ares [Greek "Destroyer"] / Mars [Roman]
God of war, son of Zeus & Hera, and brother of Eris.
Arinna [Hittite] / Hebat [Hurrian]
Goddess of heaven, identified with the sun, "Queen Of Heaven And Earth" and wife of Ishkur.
Artemis [Greek] / Diana [Roman]
Daughter of Zeus & Leto and brother to Apollo, she was a goddess of fertility, crops, childbirth, the moon, and hunting.
Ashnan [Mesopotamian] / Emmer [Sumerian]
Daughter of Enki and goddess of wheat.
Ashertu / Atirat [Semitic] / Aserdus [Hittite]
Probably a goddess of the sun, associated with Amm; wife to Elkunirsha.
Ashur / A(n)s(h)ar / Asir / Assur [Babylonian / Sumerian "All Of Heaven" / "Horizon Of Heaven"]
The sky; son of the Lahama, and with Kisar father of Anu.
Asmodaios / Asmodeus / Asmoday / Asmodai / Ashmodei / Asmodee
An old Iranian demon co-opted by the Jews; later promoted to their chief.
Astarte / Istar / Athtar / Ashera(t) / Ashtoreth [Phoenician] / As(h)taroth / Ashteroth [Canaanite] / Atargatis [Greek] (cf Ishtar)
Sister of Baal and goddess of fertility & birth, sometimes wife of El; an Asherah (pl. Asherim) was a sacred grove or "high place" as mentioned numerous times in the bible.
Names Of Places :
Aten / Atum [Egyptian]
First god to arise (as a mountain) from primeval chaos (cf Khnum), the site of which became the city of Heliopolis ("City Of The Sun"), later Baalbek. His will, the Word, (personified as the Benu bird (a phoenix / heron)) brought his body into being, then he created Shu & Tefnut from his own seed by masturbation; later assimilated with Re & Osiris. He had a short-lived cult under Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) & Nefernefruaten-Nefertiti, who created their city of Akhetaten ("Horizon Of The Aten", modern Amarna) and heralded a new era of artistic style before he waged war against the other gods and the priesthood reclaimed their power :
Athena / Athene [Greek] / Minerva [Roman]
Born directly from the head of Zeus though mothered by Metis, she was goddess of crafts & wisdom, and war; with the prefix 'Pallas', she was also protector of the home.
Attis [Phrygian]
God of vegetation, he castrated himself and from his blood grew the flowers and trees of spring; a celebration of his death and resurrection was incorporated into the festivals of Cybele, including his symbol of a pine tree from which some legends say he was hung, though other stories have him killed by a boar, like Adonis.
Azaz(y)el / Asasel
Demon of the wilderness to whom was sent a scapegoat : later the leader of the rebel angels.
Baal(im) [Canaanite "Lord" / "Master"] / Baalzebub / Beelzebub [Baal-Zebul "Baal The Prince" / Baal-Zevuv "Lord of the Flies" which was a deliberate Hebrew distortion of the original]
Son of El and sometimes married to his sister Anat, he was responsible for fertility though he later became associated with the sun; he was killed by Mot, but after Anat had killed and dismembered Mot (cf Isis & Osiris & Set), Baal was reborn from the pieces. The female equivalent of the title was Baalat(h), or "Lady" / "Mistress". The city of Baalbek was named after Baal-Biqah, and had temples dedicated to Jupiter & Venus & Mercury; the main temple was originally for Baal-Hadad, who the Romans identified with Jupiter and the sun, hence their name of Heliopolis ("City Of The Sun"). Baal was also an earlier title / name for Yahweh : Titles / Names Of People : Names Of Places :
Baba / Bau [Sumerian]
Daughter of An and wife of Ningirsu, she was a goddess of healing; equated with Gula.
Bastet / Bubastis [Egyptian]
Goddess known as "The Eye Of Re", she was the mother of Anubis. The centre of her cult was in the city of Bubastis, whose name soon became synonymous with her.
Behemoth [Hebrew "Animal"]
A hippopotamus; later a manifestation of Satan.
Bel [Sumerian / Akkadian "Master"] / Belos [Greek]
The most wise and clever of the gods, he was equated with Marduk and the battle with Tiamat (cf Enuma Elish), which was used in the bible in a very garbled form :
Belial / Beliar ["Unholy One" / "Worthless One"]
An evil spirit or prince of darkness whose followers opposed law; later compared to Satan. In the KJV OT, his name was used to indicate someone such as a liar (e.g., "son of Belial"), though Young's used the literal translation of "worthless one".
Belili [Mesopotamian]
Sister of Dumuzi.
Bes / Bestet [Egyptian]
Male and female deities who warded evil and acted as household guardians.
Ceres [Roman]
Goddess of agriculture & fertility, associated with Tellus, she had a feast named after her on 19th April, the Cerealia; identified with Demeter.
Charities [Greek] / Gratiae / Graces [Roman]
Originally a singular entity and wife of Hephaistos / Vulcanus, traditionally they were a trinity comprising Aglaia (Splendour), Euphrosine (Cheerfulness), & Thaleia (Blossom).
Charon [Greek]
The ferryman who took the dead to Hades by rowing them over the river Styx / Acheron, he was paid by the deceased having a coin placed in their mouth.
Cybele / Cybebe / Kybele [Phrygian]
The greatest mother-goddess, she was responsible for fertility but also diseases; identified with Demeter. In her name there was a spring festival which began on 15th March with fasting and purification, then a week later (22nd) a pine tree (symbol of her lover Attis) was brought to her temple, and on the 24th (cf Easter) the Day Of Blood commemmorated Attis' death; as with other vegetation / crop deities (cf Tammuz), the cult centred around beliefs in immortaility through death & rebirth.
Dagon [Canaanite] / Dagan [Sumerian "Corn"]
God of vegetation & crops, father of Baal and husband to Shalas; equated with Enlil.
Names Of Places :
Daimon [Greek "Alloter (of Fate)"]
The manifestation of godly power as a personal agent, "Daimonius" meant "strange" or "uncanny"; later a personification of evil as "demon".
Damgalnunna [Mesopotamian]
Wife of Enki and mother of Marduk.; equated with the Sumerian Ninhursanga.
Damu [Sumerian]
God of exorcism; son of Nininsina.
Demeter [Greek]
Goddess of fertility & the earth; daughter of Kronos & Rhea, sister of Zeus, and mother of Persephone.
Deucalion [Greek] (cf Ziasudra / Ut(a)napishtim / Atrahasis)
Son of Prometheus, who with his family survived the flood sent by Zeus
Dimme [Sumerian] / Lamashtu [Akkadian]
Demoness of childhood fevers and diseases.
Dionysus [Greek "Son Of Zeus"] / Bacchus [Roman]
God of fertility and the vine (some stories have him making wine from water), he was a son of Zeus by Semele who died and was reincarnated. His followers danced and sang and generally had a good time; in some places they took an animal and, after having torn it apart, ate it as part of a sacremental ritual believing that by so doing they would absorb the god's powers.
Dumuziabzu [Sumerian "True Child Of Abzu"]
Babylonian goddess associated with Enki.
Ea (Eya(h) / Ya) [Babylonian] / Enki / Enlil [Sumerian "Lord Of The Earth" / "Lord Of The Command"] / Ellil [Babylonian "Lord Of The Wind"] / Ellel / Ellilus / A'as [Hittite]
God of science and magic who could revive the dead; son of Anu and Nammu, and father of Marduk, he and his wife Ninlil created all life and were later responsible for the flood; to the Hittites he was also the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, and equated with Kumarbi. As in the pre-fall Eden of the Bible :
Ebech [Canaanite]
Old mountain god who was overcome by Inanna.
El [Canaanite "Mighty One" / "First One" / "Creator Of Creatures"] / Il [Arabian]
Father of the gods and creator of everything, though "El" / "Elohe" was a title rather than a name, and singular, wheras the plural "Elohim" was used by Yahweh : Names Of People : There are hundreds of name from the Bible, Apocrypha, and Mediaeval texts, so only a few are listed Names Of Places :
Eljon [Syrian "To Be Up"] / Hypsistos [Greek "Most Lofty"]
Old syrian diety who descriptive name was later incorporated into El as El-Eljon, an epithet of Yahweh.
Elkunirsha [Hittite "El, Creator Of The Earth"]
Husband of Ashertu.
Enbilulu [Sumerian]
God of agriculture & irrigation, sometimes regarded as the son of Ea; his name was later taken as one of Marduk's.
Enmesharra [Sumerian "Lord Of The Rules"]
Very old deity who was sometimes set over An, he was a god of the underworld.
The Ennead [Egyptian "The Nine"]
The first nine Gods & Goddesses, comprising the originator Atum, his children Shu & Tefnut, their children Nut & Geb, and their complementary pairs of twins of Light and Darkness, Osiris & Isis, and Set & Nephthys.
Eos [Greek "Dawn"] / Aurora [Roman]
Goddess of the morning, and sister of Helios & Selene.
The Erinyes [Greek "The Avengers"] / The Furies [Roman "The Mad Ones"]
Born from the blood of Uranus, they were the three 'daughters of the night' : Allekto (the unremitting), Teisiphone (the avenger of murder), and Megaira (the envious); later their attributes were softened and they became "The Venerable Ones" or "The Well-disposed".
Eris [Greek] / Discordia [Roman "Dissension" / "Dischord"]
Sister of Ares and goddess of strife, she could either spur people to healthy competition or drive them to ruin.
Eriskegal / Ereshkigal [Sumerian "The Great Earth"] / Allatu [Semitic "The Goddess"] / Allat [Arabic "Al-Ilat" = "The Goddess"]
Ruler of the netherworld and sender of death to mortals via Namtar, sister of Inanna in heaven and married to Nergal; as Allat, one of the daughters of Allah.
Eros [Greek] / Amor [Roman] / Cupido [Roman "Longing" / "Passion"]
Son of Aphrodite & Ares, he was the god of love, as well as friendship between men and boys.
Erra [Babylonian] / Irra [Babylonian]
He brought plagues and other calamities when goaded by the Sebettu; Ishum was his advisor.
Etemmu [Babylonian]
The name given to the ghost of a person who had not been buried; potentially harmful.
Fauna [Roman]
Ancient goddess of woodlands and fields, also of fertility for crops and livestock; usually either the sister or wife of Faunus
Gabriel [Hebrew "Strong One Of God"]
An archangel, usually a messenger of God, though other texts portrayed him as a bringer of retribution & death sent by an angry God.
Gaia [Greek "Earth"]
One of the basic cosmological principles, she gave birth to Uranus, mother of the Titans, and the Cyclops; with Tartaros, mother of Typhon.
Geb [Egyptian "Earth"]
Father of all the gods, husband of Nut; son of Shu & Tefnut, and father of Osiris & Isis and Set & Nephthys.
Gilgamesh [Sumerian]
Not a god but a hero of the eponymous epic tale which also described a flood, sent by Enlil. A fore-runner of other mythical heroes who either had to perform a series of daunting tasks (cf Heracles), or search the world for an unachievable goal (in this case, immortality).
Gula [Mesopotamian "The Great One"]
Goddess of healing and wife of Ninurta.
Hades [Greek "The Invisible One"] / Plutos [Greek "Riches"] / Dis Pater [Roman "Father of Dis"] / Orcus [Roman]
God of the underworld and husband of Persephone, he possessed a magic helmet which rendered him invisible. His personal name was later appropriated as a name for the place 'hell', though his underworld actually consisted of both the Elysian Fields (a nice place) and Tartarus / Tartaros (a not so nice place), whose entrance was guarded by Cerberus (a dog with three heads, three serpents' tails, and a body covered with vipers), who was briefly removed by Heracles.
Hathor [Egyptian "House Of Horus"]
Goddess of the sky and the original mother of Horus until superseded by Isis, she was portrayed as a cow and was the deity for dancing and music.
Hecate / Hekate [Greek]
Grand-daughter of Perseus (via Perses), goddess of the night and dark magic, she wasn't the nicest of goddesses but had shrines outside people's homes, and like the Roman Lares guarded cross-roads.
Helios [Greek] / Sol [Roman]
God of the sun and brother of the moon-goddess Selene and morning-goddess Eos, he saw and heard everything; later combined with Apollo.
Hephaestus [Greek] / Vulcan(us) [Roman]
Originally a god of volcanic fire, he became a god of the smithy and thus armourer and weapons-maker to the gods; he was the son of Zeus & Hera, and husband to Aphrodite.
Hera [Greek] / Juno [Roman]
Daughter of Kronos & Rhea and jealous wife of Zeus, she was a goddess of wedlock and childbirth.
Heracles [Greek] / Hercules [Roman "Hera's Glory"]
Son of Zeus by a mortal and originally a hero (though deified after his death), he had an extensive series of stories attached to him since birth, including the 12 labours.
Hermes [Greek] / Mercury [Roman]
Messenger of the gods (primarily Zeus / Jupiter) and a god of fertility, sometimes portrayed as man with a phallus on his head. Piles of stones were erected as guides for travellers, and pillars ("hermen") placed outside homes for him to live in and protect the home; he also led the souls of the dead into Hades. Often portrayed with a ram either across his shoulder or under his arm, he was a "good shepherd" and god of flocks and herds, as well as music, having invented the lyre.
Horae [Greek]
Originally goddesses of the seasons: Thallo (Spring / Blossom), Auxo (Summer / Growth), & Karpo (Winter / Ripened Fruit); later, as daughters of Zeus & Themis, they were Eunomia (Law), Dike (Justice), & Eirene (Peace).
Horus [Egyptian "He Who Is Above"]
Son of Isis & Osiris and bearer of the Solar Eye (cf Re) after having fought Set, he was god of the sky and carried the sun and moon.
Pre-Islamic moon-god whose image of red carnelian stands in Mecca; later became Al-Ilah ("The God").
Igigi [Akkadian]
The great gods of the heavens, in contrast to the Anunnaki who dwelt in the lower regions.
Ishkur [Hittite] / Teshub [Hurrian] / Tishpak [Babylonian]
God of weather, particularly thunder-storms, and husband to Arinna.
Is(h)tar / Estar [Akkadian] / Inanna [Sumerian] (cf Astarte & Nininsina)
Known as the "Queen Of Heaven", she was the goddess of war, love & the planet Venus, and fertility; sister of the underworld's Ereshkigal, brother of Shamash, and daughter of either Anu or Nanna. Often ruthless, her greatest consort was Tammuz so when he died she tried to rescue him from the underworld, but during her visit nothing grew or was born in the world, and Ea tried to trick Ereshkigal by creating a eunuch to take the water of life, but she saw through the deception and returned Ishtar; in the epic of Gilgamesh, she wanted to take him as her husband, but he knew of her past affaires and refused.
Ishum [Akkadian]
Herald of the gods and brother of Shamash, he also served Erra.
Isis [Egyptian]
Goddess of the throne and authority, later protector of the dead, she was sister / wife of Osiris who gathered his remains after he had been slain by Set (cf Anat & Baal & Mot), and mother to Horus; with Neith, she was one of many sources for the Christian stories of Mary with the infant Jesus (Horus), and the 'Madonna' portraits.
Jarih / Erah [Canaanite]
God of the moon.
Kadesh / Kedesh [Canaanite]
Goddess of love and sexuality; later adopted by the Egyptians as a form of Hathor.
Names Of Places :
Khons [Egyptian]
God of the moon and son of Amun & Mut, he was conflated with Thoth and equated with Shu.
Khnum / Kneph [Egyptian "To Unite / Build"]
One of the oldest gods, he formed mankind from clay on a potter's wheel (cf Aruru & Nammu & Ptah & Yahweh) whilst Thoth alloted the man's years; he had various titles which implied he was the first god and the maker of all that followed, and took on aspects of Ra & Osiris & Geb & Nut, so he became a variation of Ptah.
Demon son of Tiamat; when he was killed, his blood was used by Ea to help create mankind.
Kisar [Babylonian / Sumerian "All Of Earth" / "Horizon Of Earth]
Daughter of the Lahama & sister to Anshar.
Kronos [Greek]
Originally a god of fertility (cf Saturnalia) born of the Titans Gaia and Uranus, he usurped their power and tried to kill all his children by eating them, but Zeus escaped and banished him to Tartarus.
Kumarbi [Hurrian]
Father of the gods who abdicated under filial pressure.
Lahmu & Lahamu (the Lahama) [Sumerian]
Water-demons who were the children of Apsu & Tiamat, and parents to Anshar & Kisar.
Lama [Sumerian] / Lamassu [Akkadian]
Kindly demoness who, with her male counterpart Shedu, were guardians depicted as human-bull composites who stood flanking palace entrances.
Lares [Roman]
Household guardians, they also protected travellers and, like Hecate, could be found at cross-roads.
Leviathan [Phoenecian]
Monster of the ocean (probably a whale) though usually used to denote a monstrous serpent; later a manifestation of Satan.
Lilitu / Ardat-lili [Babylonian] / Kiskil-lilla [Sumerian] / Lilith
Originally a nocturnal demoness, she was later the first wife of Adam after he tired of coupling with animals, though spurned by him as she wanted to be his equal; identified with Hecate.
Maat [Egyptian]
Daughter of Re and goddess of cosmic order, she presided over judges.
Malik ["King"]
Pre-Islamic god whose name was used for God; in Islam, the gatekeeper to hell.
Mammon [Aramaic "Property"]
The personification of riches.
Mam(m)itu [Akkadian]
Goddess of oaths, she was a judge in the underworld with her husband Nergal; equated with Ereshkigal.
Manat ["Fate"]
Pre-Islamic goddess of destiny; one of the three daughters of Allah.
Marduk [Sumerian "Calf Of The Sun-God"]
Another god of war, also of heaven, earth, and fire. Son of Ea and husband to Sarpanitu, he fought Tiamat and, after killing her and using parts of her body to create the world, formed humanity to serve the gods :
Martu [Babylonian]
Old god of the wilderness, allegedly the son of An.
Mazzikin (cf Shedim)
Evil spirits mentioned in the talmud.
Melkart [Phoenician "King Of The City"]
Chief god of Tyrus, he was associated with the ocean and ships, though later a sun god; equated with Heracles.
Michael [Hebrew "Who Is Like God?"]
An archangel, God's champion and prince of angels who ejected Lucifer / Satan from heaven, he will weigh souls at the last judgement.
Mithra [Persian] / Mithras [Roman]
The God of light (superseded by Ahura Mazda, though he later made a come-back under the Romans who expanded his cult and celebrated the Sol Invictus); also a god of weather and vegetation.
Moires [Greek "Portion / Share"]
The three Fates: Klotho (spinner of the Thread of Life), Lachesis (the sustainer), & Atropos ("the inevitable") who cut the thread and so brought death; daughters of Zeus & Themis.
Molech / Moloch / Melech [Canaanite "King"] (cf Malik) / Milcom / Milkom [Ammonite]
A local god who had children sacrificed to him, though the word was probably not a name but rather the word for "offering" or "sacrifice"; identified with Baal-Hammon & Nergal.
Names Of People : Names Of Places :
Mot [Phoenecian "Death"]
God of drought & infertility and lord of the underworld, he killed Baal and was dismembered by Anat who then used his parts to resurrect Baal. (cf Isis & Osiris & Set)
Apsu's advisor, slain by Ea.
Muses [Greek]
Originally led by Apollon to sing the gods' praises, each of the nine later took on specific attributes : Erato (love poetry), Euterpe (lyric poetry and playing the flute), Calliope (epic poetry & philosophy), Klio (history), Melpomene (Tragedy), Polyhymnia (Songs), Terpsichore (Dance), Thalis (Comedy), & Urania (Astronomy).
Mut [Egyptian "The Mother"]
Goddess of the sky and wife of Amun; sometimes equated with Hathor.
Nammu [Sumerian] (cf Aruru)
Mother of all the gods, and Enki; creator of mankind from clay.
Namtar [Sumerian "That Which Is Cut Off"]
God of Fate, messenger of Ereshkigal and bringer of death to mortals.
Nana [Armenian]
Daughter of Aramazd; equated with Athena and Cybele.
Nanaja [Mesopotamian]
Goddess of sex and war; later equated with Tashmetu.
Nanna [Sumerian] / Sin [Babylonian]
God of the moon and Lord Of Destiny, son of Enlil & Ninlil, and with Ningal father of Utu.
Nanshe [Sumerian]
Daughter of Enki, she was a local goddess of soothsaying and divination.
Naunet [Egyptian] (cf Nun)
She embodied the feminine aspects of the primeval waters.
Nebo / Nabu [Babylonian]
Son of Marduk & Sarpanitu and husband to Tashmetu, he was god of writing and as master scribe held the Tablets of Destiny (cf Enuma Elish).
Names Of Places :
Neith / Net [Egyptian "Terrible One"]
Originally a goddess of war, she later became a primal deity, the mother of Re and other gods, as well as man; associated with Isis & Hathor, and Athena :
Nemesis [Greek]
Goddess who distributed luck & justice in equal proportions, and punished those who displayed arrogance (hubris).
Nephthys [Egyptian "Mistress Of The House"]
Sister of Isis who mourned with her the death of Osiris, she was husband to Set and a friend of the dead as well as childbirth.
Nereus [Greek]
God of oceans and water in general, his parents were Gaia and Pontos; his 50 daughters were known as the Nereids, and attended Poseidon.
Nergal [Babylonian] / Nerigal [Sumerian] / Dur [Kassite]
God of the underworld and husband of Ereshkigal / Mamitu, he brought war & destruction; sometimes regarded as the destructive aspect of Shamash.
Names Of People :
Nike [Greek] / Victoria [Roman]
The personification of victory.
Ninazu [Sumerian "Master Physician"]
God of healing and the underworld, he was more sympathetic than Nergal and father to Ningishzida.
Ningal [Babylonian "Great Lady" / "Great Queen"] / Nikkal [Syrian]
Wife of Nanna and mother of Utu.
Ningishzida [Sumerian "Lord Of The Right Tree"]
He watched over demons who had been sent to the underworld, though sometimes he was a healer like his father Ninazu, and guarded the entrance to heaven.
Nininsina [Sumerian]
Goddess of prosperity and healing; daughter of An & Urash and mother of Damu; sometimes equated with Inanna.
Ninlil [Sumerian "Queen Breeze"] / Aruru / Ninhursag / Ninhursanga [Sumerian "Lady Of The Mountains"]
Ruler of heaven, earth, air, grain and sometimes the underworld & wind, she married Enlil and was the mother of Nanna / Utu; as Aruru she was the goddess of creation and made the hero Endiku who travelled with Gilgamesh :
Ninmah [Sumerian "Most Great Queen"] / Dingirmah / Mah [Sumerian "Most Great Divinity"]
An old Mesopotamian mother-goddess, similar to Ninlil.
Ninsun [Mesopotamian "Queen Of The Wild Cow"]
Mother of Gilgamesh and wife of Lugalbanda.
Ninurta [Sumerian "Lord Of The Earth"] / Ningirsu [Sumerian "Lord Of Girsu"] / Lahurati [Elamite]
God of fertility & breeding, and war; son of Enlil and married to Gula.
Nisaba [Sumerian]
Goddess of writing & knowledge, and corn; daughter of An.
Nun [Egyptian] (cf Naunet)
"Father of the gods", he embodied the masculine aspects of the primeval waters.
Nusku [Mesopotamian]
God of light & fire, and the foe of demons & witches; son of Enlil.
Nut [Egyptian]
Goddess of the sky and wife of Geb; daughter of Shu & Tefnut, and mother of Osiris & Isis and Set & Nephthys.
Nyx [Greek]
A primeval goddess who emerged from Chaos and was the personification of night, she was mother to the heavens and day, as well as Hypnos (sleep) and Thanatos (death).
Son Geb and Nut, he was murdered by his brother Set and his dismembered body scattered, but his sister / wife Isis collected his parts and gave birth to Horus (cf Anat & Baal & Mot), then Osiris became god of the underworld as the sun passed beneath the earth before rising again.
Pan [Greek] / Faunus [Roman]
Ancient god of nature, guardian of shepherds and farmers.
Pazuzu [Babylonian]
Ancient demon who brought storms and diseases.
Persephone / Kore [Greek] / Proserpina [Roman]
Daughter of Zeus and goddess of the harvest; she remained with Hades for four months of the year, during which time her mother Demeter withheld her blessing from the earth and so nothing grew during winter.
Perseus [Greek]
Heroic son of Zeus & Danae, and via Perses grand-father to Hecate; with the help of weapons given to him by the Nymphs he slew the Gorgon Medusa and later rescued Andromeda.
Pistis Sophia [Gnostic "Faith Wisdom"] / Barbelo(n) [Hebrew "Wisdom"] / Achamoth (Sophia's Ignorance)
The first spirit (aeon) formed from the thought of God's spirit, she was the personification of Wisdom and a co-creator with God; her light was as bright as his, and she was the womb from which all other aeons (cf Angels Of John's Apocryphon) were born; vague references to her can be found in Bible Gods, particularly The Wisdom Of Solomon, though her main role was as Jesus' consort.
Phosphorus [Greek] / Lucifer [Roman "Bringer Of Light"]
The Morning Star; later equated with Satan.
Pontos [Greek "Sea"]
God of the oceans; with Gaia, he was father of Nereus.
Poseidon [Greek] / Neptune [Roman]
God of the oceans and storms, son of Kronos & Rhea, husband to Amphitrite.
Prometheus [Greek "The Planner"]
Bringer of fire and crafts to mortals, he warned Deucalion about the impending flood to be sent by Zeus, and was punished by being chained to a rock and tortured until released by Heracles; one legend portrayed him as the creator of mankind from clay.
Ptah [Egyptian]
God who created the world through the power of his 'word' (cf Atum), and formed mankind from clay on a potter's wheel (cf Aruru & Nammu & Khnum & Yahweh ).
Monster of chaos, portrayed as a sea-serpent.
Names Of Places : Names Of People :
Raphael [Hebrew "God's Blessing"]
An archangel and general protector; the name was possibly derived from Rephaim.
Re / Ra [Egyptian] / Ria [Babylonian]
God of the sun; later assimilated with Amun to become the creator; he was attended by the gods Hu & Sia who personified the Word which the creator used to make life, and the knowledge which made creation possible.
Rephaim [Syrian]
Very old gods or spirits of the underworld; in the KJV they are referred to as "giants", though also used to indicate the dead who were in hell.
Names Of Places :
Reshef [Canaanite / Phoenician "Fire" / "Plague"]
Known as "Lord Of The Arrow", he was a god of fire and plagues & pestilence; later appropriated by the Egyptians.
Rhea [Greek]
Daughter of Uranus & Gaia, sister / wife of Kronos, mother of Zeus & Hades & Hera & Poseidon; equated with Cybele.
Sabazios / Sabos [Phrygian]
God of agriculture and midwifery whose cult was equated with the excesses of Dionysus; his name was later incorporated into El-Sabaoth, whilst Sabaism meant the worship of stars and / or the spirits in them.
Sahirim / Se'irim
Demons or spirits in the shape of goats, sometimes referred to as satyrs.
Sam(m)ael / Samiel ["Blind God"] / Yaltabaoth / Ialdabaoth / Saklas
The arrogant son of Pistis Sophia who thought he was the only creator (cf Attributes Of Yahweh) before being admonished by his parents; father of Sabaoth; lover of Lilith and sometimes an angel of death; later equated with Satan.
Sarpanitu [Akkadian "She Who Shines Silver"]
Wife of Marduk and goddess of pregnancy.
Satan [Hebrew "Adversary"] / Shaitan / Iblis [Arabic, the latter from Greek Diabolos] / Mephisto(pheles) [Hebrew "Destroyer" (+ "Liar")] / Mastema / Mansemat [Gnostic]
Leader of the angels who rebelled against God and refused to bow down before mankind; personification of everything that was 'evil' (anti-God).
Saturn [Roman]
God of agriculture and father of many other gods in the Roman pantheon including Jupiter; not as popular as the Saturnalia festival named after him.
Sebettu [Akkadian "The Seven" (= The Pleiades)]
Two groups of seven demons who, though sired by An, acted for bad as well as good and continually vied with one another.
Selene [Greek "Light" / "Radiance"] / Mene [Greek "Moon"] / Luna [Roman "Moon"]
Goddess of the moon and sister of the sun-god Helios and morning-goddess Eos, she was a patron of magicians; later combined with Artemis or Hecate.
Set(h) / Setech / Sutech / Sutekh [Egyptian]
God of vegetation and the desert, he slew his brother Osiris and scattered his dismembered body and fought Horus before the two were reconciled (cf Baal & Mot); married to Nephthys, he slew Apophis.
Shahr [Mesopotamian]
Goddess of the moon and counterpart to Shamash.
Shala(s) [Mesopotamian]
Wife of Adad or Dagon; equated with Ninlil.
Shamash / Shemesh / Shapash [Mesopotamian] / Samas [Semitic "Sun"] / Chemosh / Kamosh [Moabite] / Utu [Sumerian] / Shams [Arabic "Sun"]
God of the sun who as a judge issued laws (in particular, to Hammurabi) and was a symbol of fertility, though he was also the Moabite god of war; son of Sin and married to his sister Ishtar, he was brother to Ishum.
Names Of Places :
Shar / Sha(s)har & Shalim / Shalem [Syrian "Dawn" & "Dusk" / "Twilight"]
Gods of the morning (star) and evening (star).
Shedim / Shaddim ("Shedim" is plural, the singular is "Shed")
Mentioned as demons and devils (false gods); probably originated from Shedu.
Shmun / The Ogdoad [Egyptian "The Eight"]
Four pairs of deities representing the primeval forces of chaos :
Shu [Egyptian "Emptiness"]
Son of Aten and god of the air; husband to Tefnut and father of Geb & Nut and separated them.
Sokar(is) / Seker [Egyptian]
Originally lord of the necropolis and equated with Ptah; later god of the dead and equated with Osiris.
Tammuz / Dumuzi [Sumerian "True Son"]
Akkadian god of vegetation, son of Ea and husband of Inanna, symbol of death & rebirth who died in the middle of summer and was revived by Ishtar; one of his epithets was Ama'ushumgal which meant "whose mother was a heavenly dragon"; also known as Adoni(s) in Syria, then adopted by the Greeks. He was Christianised as St. Thomas.
Tan(n)it(h) / T(h)innit
Virgin queen of heaven and goddess of fertility; linked to Baal-Hammon,, she was the supreme deity of Carthage and was called "face of Baal".
Tashmetu [Mesopotamian]
Wife of Nebo, she listened to people's prayers.
Tefnut [Egyptian]
Daughter of Aten and goddess of the atmosphere & moisture; wife of Shu and mother of Geb & Nut.
Tellus / Terra [Roman "Earth"]
Goddess of the earth; associated with Ceres.
Themis [Greek]
Goddess of morality & justice; daughter of Gaia & Uranus, wife to Zeus, and mother of the Horae & Moires.
Thetis [Greek]
Daughter of Nereus, she married a mortal, Peleus, and bore a son Achilleus [Greek] / Achilles[Roman].
Thoth [Egyptian] / Hermes Trismegistos [Greek "Hermes Thrice-Great"]
God of writing, knowledge, and time; he helped protect Osiris and became a guide for the dead and their souls; Hermes Trismegistos was later identified with the One True God.
Tiamat [Babylonian]
Goddess of chaos and mother of the earliest gods, including Anshar. Having been killed by Marduk, her eyes became the sources of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, a mountain rose on her head, her breasts became hills, her tail was used to join heaven and earth, and her back supported the heavens. The two parts of her body were referred to as "Tiamat eliti" ("the ocean above") & "Tiamat shapliti" ("the ocean below"), an idea which was used in the bible :
Tuat [Egyptian]
Not a deity, but the valley in the underworld through which passed the sun on its nocturnal voyage between dusk and dawn, where it illuminated the dead.
Typhon [Greek "Whirlwind"]
A large dragon / monster, son of Tartaros & Gaia, he was the cause of storms & earthquakes.
Uranus [Greek "Sky / Heaven"]
God of the sky and husband to Gaia, the earth; father of Aphrodite, The Erinyes, the Titans, and the Cyclops.
Urash [Mesopotamian]
Old goddess of the earth, who with An was mother of Nininsina.
Uriel [Hebrew "My Light Is Like God"]
An archangel who revealed secrets; the guardian of John the Baptiser.
Y(a)hw(e)h / Y(a)hv(e)h / Ya(h)(u) / Yo(h)
Originally a god of the sky, in common with older myths of crops and vegetation he gave grain and wine to man; he threatened people who believed in any of the other gods, and was a manifestation of the nasty side of Ea / Enki / El; he made Adam ('mankind') from clay / earth (cf Aruru & Khnum & Nammu & Ptah): He also appropriated some of the attributes of other deities including their titles (cf Baal). As names were believed to have power over things and a commandment said his name should not be taken in vain, worshippers substituted the word Adonai ("Lord") beneath the vowel-less 'Yhwh', which created the artificial 'Yehova' / 'Jehovah'. (A link with Ea is proposed by David Rohl* in the second volume of his search to historify the biblical stories, where the puzzling statement "And God said unto Moses, 'I am that (which) I am': and he said, 'Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, "I am" hath sent me unto you.' " [Exodus 3:14] appears, for whilst some have assumed it to be either a pointless or profound self-referencing phrase along the lines of "I am me", he posits that it is a play on words, as in Hebrew it is eyah asher eyah, so the sounds for "I am" and "Ea" are the same, and God is really saying "I am Ea" to educate Moses into the original name which had been forgotten.) * Although Rohl is a classically-trained Egyptologist, he diverges from the current chronology by a few centuries as he believes what was a linear sequence actually contains many co-incident rulers; however, he is not a supporter of any of the 'alternative' histories such as those proposed by Bauval / Hancock etc., and in fact is critical of their work.
Zababa [Babylonian]
Another god of war, and partner of Inanna; equated with Ninurta / Ningirsu.
Zervan [Persian "Time"]
The supreme god, Lord of Light & Darkness and father of Ahura Mazda & Ahriman; also a god of fate.
Zeus [Greek "To Shine"] / Jupiter / Iuppiter [Roman "Diu" + "Pater" (= "Light" + "Father")]
The only surviving child of Kronos (barring his sister Demeter), head of the pantheon and sender of the flood from which only Deucalion and his wife survived; father of Apollo & Artemis & Athena & Dionysus & the Horae & the Moires & Persephone & Perseus and many others.
Ziusudra [Sumerian] / Ut(a)napishtim [Babylonian] / Atrahasis [Akkadian] (cf Deucalion)
Survivor of the Flood sent by Ea, encountered by Gilgamesh during his travels.
Zoe [Gnostic "Life"]
Daugher of Pistis Spohia, though in many ways she was merely an aspect of her mother and the two were often conflated.

Festivals & Celebrations

The first day of February is used to mark the ending of winter and the coming of spring. The old goddess of healing, Brig(h)id, was taken by the Christians and turned into St. Brigid, and they use the following day to celebrate Candlemas (Jesus being presented to the temple and his 'dirty' mother being cleansed).
St. Valentine's Day
This was originally known as Lupercalia, a Roman holiday that occurred in the ides of February (15 th), when Juno sent love to confuse and confound the young; there was also a fertility festival that was based on men choosing women as partners by picking notes from a pile held in a small pot. The Christians changed the name to honour St. Valentine and moved the date by one day, but that's all they could do.
Ostara / Easter / Vernal (Spring) Equinox
Another ancient festival of life plundered by Christians and Jews as Easter and Passover (Pessach) respectively, where one celebrates the ascendance to heaven of a supernatural being who pretended to die for three days before coming back to life, and the other celebrates the slaughter of the Eqgyptians' first-born. The name 'Easter' itself isn't Christian, but either based on Istar, or the Teutonic fertility goddess Eastre who was celebrated at the time of the vernal equinox, or Ostara the Norse goddess. From this comes the rabbit as a symbol of fertility, and an even earlier custom of painting eggs to represent the sun (both symbols of life).
May Day / Belta(i)ne / Walpurgisnacht
A celebration of fertility with young girls dancing around the phallic may-pole on the first day of the month; Christians took the Teutonic mother goddess figure of Walburg and made her into St. Walpurga (one of a few saints who didn't get their title by slaughtering a lot of people, or non-existent creatures such as dragons).
Litha / Summer Solstice / Midsummer's Eve / Midsummer Night
A time of rejoicing and making merry, having a good time because of the long daylight hours; also a time in which to commune with the spirit folk.
Lammas / Lughnasadh
Held on August 1st to celebrate the harvest and give thanks to the numerous god/desses of grain and agriculture. Also begins "The Chase of Lugh", Lugh being the Celtic Sun god.
Mabon / Autumnal Equinox
A warning that the days begin to get shorter as autumn and then winter approaches; time to plan ahead and collect the harvest. End of "The Chase of Lugh" when the last grain is felled.
Samhain / Sow-inn / Hallowe'en / All Hallow's Eve / All Soul's Day / All Saints Day
October 31st is a festival celebrating the end of the light months of summer and entry into the dark months of winter; this is also the beginning of the Celtic year, when the barriers between this world and the world of the dead became weaker and living people could converse with the departed. With the advent of Christianity, this became Hallowe'en with the attendant imagery of skulls (holy objects for Celts and other cultures) and skeletons, and lighted lanterns to keep evil spirits at bay. Their own festival of All Saint's day, to celebrate the Holy Ghost presenting itself to the apostles, is currently November 1st but was originally some weeks after Easter, which only goes to show they didn't have a clue when it was supposed to have occurred.
Yule / Winter Solstice / Christmas (Mass of Christ)
The date of 25 th December is associated by Christians with the birth of their mythical Jesus (though originally it was 6th January, which date is still used today by some sects), who came to earth and died a scapegoat for the sins of humanity, even though they were made this way by an allegedly omnipotent deity. The idea of a scapegoat is a very old one, where an animal or sometimes a young child was taken around a village where it was said to absorb all of the people's bad luck; afterwards it was either banished from the village or sacrificed. An associated idea is that of washing away one's sins by bathing or being ritually cleansed. Jesus' birthday certainly couldn't have been at this time of year if Luke is as reliable as believers claim he is (2:8 "And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night."), but it was moved to its present date as part of attempt to make Christianity seem comparable with other religions and existing festivals. The Romans celebrated the Winter Solstice a day after Saturnalia, which was a week-long festival in honour of Saturn, their god of agriculture. The Romans in turn took their feast from earlier Egyptian and Persian celebrations, this period being devoted to visiting friends and giving them gifts, and in general having a merry time (good food and wine, parties, that sort of thing); social roles were reversed, masquerades danced along the streets, and a mock-king, the Lord Of Mis-rule, was crowned. The cult of Mithras also sacrificed a bull to the Sun on December 25 th as part of their Natilis Invictus (the rebirth of the sun) celebration of a young sun-god, the Sol Invictus or Invincible Sun, who appeared from a cave in the form of an infant. Yule as a word has obscure origins though comes from the Old Norse; it was a time to celebrate the turning of the seasons, and the fir trees and other ever-greens such as holly were a sign of life and rebirth (a pine-tree was also the symbol of Attis).